วันอังคารที่ 29 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2551

King Naresuan The Great Biography

Formerly named Phra Ong Dam (literally means Black Prince ), King Naresuan was born in 1555 at the Chan Palace,Muang Phitsanulok.As a son of King Maha Dhammaraja (Somdej Phra Sanphet) and Queen Wisuddhikasat ( a daughter of King Maha Chakkraphat and Queen Suriyothai) of Ayudhya,Phra Ong Dam had an elder sister called Phra Suphandevi or Phra Suphan Kallaya and a young brother named Phra Eka Thossarot or Phra Ong Khao

Later,in the reign of King Burengnong of Pegu Za capital of the Mons before annexation by Burma), Ayudhya was a dependency of burma.A 9-year-old Phra Ong Dam politically became an adopted of the then Burmese king.As a political hostage,Phra Ong Dam had to live in Pegu.

In 1571,Burma named Phra Maha Dhammaraja,a father of Phra Ong Dam,a king of ayudhaya.As a viceroy,the black Prince returned to Ayudhaya.To replace him,his sister,Phra Suphan Kallaya,was sent to Pegu as a hostage.To help his father in governing the country,Phra Ong Dam, at the age of sixteen,was appointed a ruler of Muang Phitsanulok.Shortly after acting as the ruler of Muang Phitsanulok,Phra Naresuan,in 1574 ,accompanied his father's army in order to pacify Muang Sri Sattanakanahut (Vientiane) as the then Burmese king had commanded.As a royal residence and warfare headquartars,Wang Nah or Chankasem Palace was built in 1577

In 1580 , with a military troop of 3,000 soldiers,King Naresuan and his brother Prince Eka Thossarot in association with Muanf Chai Badan and Muang Srithep successfully suppressed the khmer army.After the death of the king of Pegu, a viceroy Nanthabureng sat on the throne in 1581.To suppress Thai Yai prince of Muang Kang who rose against Pegu, Phra Naresuan,in compliance with King Nanthabureng's command,led Thai army to Muang Kang.In suppression of Muang kang,apart from Thai army,Burmese and Mon troop led by Phra Maha Upparat (a son of Burmese king) and Phra Sangkhathat respectively marched to the rebellious city.
Thai army led by Prince Naresuan was copable of defeating Muang Kang and easily arrested its ruler.This resulted in a shame of Phra Maha Upparat and Phra Sangkhathat.

In 1583, according to the command of his father,King Maha Dhammaraja,Phra Ong Dam with Thai military troop marched towards Burma in order to help the Burmese King in suppression of Muang Ang Wa.But Thai army, unable to arrive in time,was under suspicion of King Nanthabureng.Phra Maha Upparaja, following his father's command,planned to get rid of Phra Naresuan informed of the Burmese tricky plan by Phra Maha Thera Khanchong,a revered Buddhist monk of Muang Kraeng,Phra Naresuan made an independence declaration before his troop and Thai Sangha Order at about19.00 hrs, Tuseday,April 14,1584.After his independence declaration,Prince Naresuan,in 1590 acceded to the throne when he was 35 years old.To assist him in ruling the country,King Naresuan named his brother Phra Ong Khao a viceroy.

In 1592, a warfare between Thailand and Burma took place.King Naresuan and Phra Maha Upparat waged a hand-to-hand combat on elephants' back.After the latter had been killed,the bravery and talent of King Naresuan spread out across the indochina region.The Kingdom of Ayudhya had enjoyed peace and prosperity for 175 years since the accession to the throne of Phra Ong Dam.No other neighboring countries dared to attack Ayudhya.In commenmoration of his victory over the Burmese viceroy,the Chedi Yudthahatthi was erected at Nong Sarai or Don Chedi where King Naresuan made an elephant combat agaonst Phra Maha Upparat.In honor of his bravery.Thai people gratefully named him King Naresuan the Great.

During the reign of King Naresuan the Great,the Kingdom of Ayudhya also dominated Cambodia.

King Naresuan the Great died of illness at the age of fifty at Thung Kaew,Muang Hang Luang in 1605 (on the 8th day of a new moon),while leading an army to attack Pegu.He reigned for 15 years.